As a graduate student in Moscow, Ruslan Medzhitov read a theory written by Charles Janeway that foresaw the existence of a set of receptors that would directly detect pathogens and signal to T- and B-cells to generate an immune response (adaptive immunity). Medzhitov was determined to find such receptors. In this discovery talk, Medzhitov provides a historical perspective that frames his involvement in the discovery of toll-like receptors. By following the clue that NF-kB was involved in the immune response, he searched for receptors that had the capacity to activate NF-kB.

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